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- Outline the neurologic, genetic, and social mechanisms of opioid abuse, especially in relation to the nationwide, opioid health emergency.
- List diagnostic signs and psychological “red flags” common in opioid abuse and opioid overdose.
- Review the current guidelines for the use of opioids in patients with acute and chronic pain.
- List the parameters of opioid use and abuse to be documented in all clinical, dental, and health care settings.
- Explain opioid replacement therapy (e.g., methadone, buprenorphine) and the use of opioid antagonists in acute overdose.
- Describe the risks and toxicities (inclusive of accidental overdose in first responders and healthcare professionals) of fentanyl and derivatives, as well as over-the-counter abusable drugs.
- Describe the short-term and long-term neurologic, psychosocial, and metabolic effects of cannabis (marijuana) use and outline these effects in relation to opioid abuse, pain inhibition, and the modulation of neurotransmitters.
- List the subterfuges aimed to prevent the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention)-mandated detection of drugs of abuse and the methods for reduction of false positives and false negatives.
- Describe how the information in this course can be utilized to improve patient care and patient outcomes.
- Describe, for this course, the implications for dentistry, mental health, nursing, and other healthcare professions.
N. Katz, M.D., Ph.D.